History of sugar
The human appreciation for sweet tastes has led to the development of more food products containing sugar and more sugar being added to existing products, leading to an ever-increasing average intake of sugar by consumers. This demand for sweeteners has led to an increase in the production of sugar, making more sugar available at affordable prices. Sugar for human consumption comes from two sources: sugar cane (70% of sugar) and sugar beets (30% of sugar).
The most common belief is that sugar cane originated in the South Pacific. Sugar cane is of the genus Saccharum:
- Saccharum spontaneum grows wild in eastern and northern Africa, the Middle East, China, Taiwan, and Malaysia, India, and throughout much of the Pacific to New Guinea.
- Saccharum robustum grows along rivers in New Guinea and some adjacent islands. Saccharum edule, believed to be a sterile form of S. robustum, is found only in New Guinea and on nearby islands.
- Saccharum officinarum most likely originated in New Guinea.
- Saccharum barberi probably originated in India.
- Saccharum sinense grows in parts of India, Indo-china, southern China, and Taiwan.
Experts generally believe that sugar cane as a crop plant was a hybrid between several species of Saccharum. Some sources suggest sugar cane was first cultivated in New Guinea and Indonesia, while others believe the first cultivated sugar cane was in India. Growing sugar cane and processing it into sugar is labor intensive, and the early history of the sugar industry was tied to slavery. According to The Bitter History of Sugar, 70% of slaves on New World plantations were involved in sugar production.
Crystal Sugar (ICUMSA 150) Specifications
The Benefits of Crystal Sugar
The benefits of crystal sugar are that it has a wide range of industrial applications and costs less than refined sugar ICUMSA 45.
White Crystal Sugar, ICUMSA 150, is the recommendation for most customers because it contains fewer chemicals, is more available, and costs less than White Refined Sugar, ICUMSA 45. White Crystal Sugar is produced using a crystallization process without chemical refining.
SPECIFICATIONS OF WHITE CRYSTAL SUGAR:
Color: White Crystal ICUMSA 150
Polarization: 99.70 degree minimum
Ash Content: 0.08% maximum
Moisture: 0.08% maximum
Radiation: Within internationally acceptable limits
Smel: No unusual or abnormal smells
Substance Structure: White Crystalline
WHITE REFINED SUGAR (ICUMSA 45) Specifications
White refined sugar ICUMSA 45 is produced from sound, undecayed, and unfermented sugar cane. The sugar does not contain any foreign matter, taste, or odor. Both dry sugar and sugar in solution has the sweet taste typical of white sugar.
Any other specifications not mentioned will meet international specifications. Also, any deviation from the above specs, due to the fact that each lot may be slightly different, will meet international specifications.
COMMODITY: WHITE REFINED CANE SUGAR – ICUMSA 45
ICUMSA: 45 RBU
COLOR: Sparkling White Maximum 45 ICUMSA Attenuation
units (ICUMSA method nº4/1978)
POLARIZATION: 99.80% Minimum at 20 Degrees Centigrade
SOLUBILITY: 100% Dry/Free Fine Flowing
MOISTURE: 0.04% Maximum, based on Dry Weight
ASH CONTENT:0.04% Maximum by Electrical Conduct
GRANULATION: Fine Standard - 0.55-0.70 Am/Mm
SUBSTANCE: Solid Crystal
MAGNETIC PARTICLE: 4 Max Mg/Kg
RADIATION: Normal without Cesium or Iodine
REDUCING SUGAR: 0.05% Maximum by Weight
HPN STAPH AUREUS: Nil
SO2: 20 Mg/Kg Maximum
MAX AS: 1 P.P.M.
MAX PB: 2 P.P.M.
MAX CU: 3 P.P.M.
CROP: Current (2015)